Mars24 Sunclock — Time on Mars
Mars Lander Missions
Following is a list of lander missions that have reached Mars and a few others that are planned, as well as a few notes about each:
Stationary NASA probe that landed Nov. 26, 2018, in Elysium Planitia, at 135.62°E 4.50°N. Nominal mission period is 709 sols, or roughly 2 Earth years.
Mars Science Laboratory / Curiosity:
NASA rover mission that landed Aug. 6, 2012, (UTC; late Aug. 5 in, US Pacific time) at 137.44°E 4.59°N in Gale Crater. The landing site is also known as Bradbury Landing. Nominal mission duration was 1 Mars year (668 sols), but the rover remains active as of Sol 2375 of its mission (Apr. 11, 2019). Since landing, the rover has traveled about 20 km.
Note: None of the following planned missions is specifically included in the Mars24 landmarks list. However, the NASA 2020 site may be approximately marked on the sunclock by selecting Jezero Crater, and the ExoMars 2020 site by selecting Oxia Planum.
Mars 2020: NASA rover project announced in July 2016 and intended for launch in summer 2020 with landing in February 2021, using a design similar to that of MSL Curiosity but with different science payload. A mission name is yet to be announced. It was announced in November 2018 that the landing site would be in Jezero Crater, at about 77.3°E 18.3°N.
ExoMars 2020: Combined ESA rover and Roscosmos stationary platform that will launch in summer 2020, with orbital insertion in February 2021 and landing in April 2021. In November 2018, it was announced that landing would occur in Oxia Planum, roughly 335.5°E 18.3°N.
China 2020 (HX-1): Combined rover and orbiter project announced in August 2016 and intended for launch in summer 2020, with orbital insertion in February 2021 and rover landing in April 2021. A mission name and landing site have not been announced. Candidate landing areas in Chryse Planitia and in Isidis Planitia have been reported.
Past Successful Landers
VL1 = Viking Lander 1: NASA probe that landed July 20, 1976, at 312.05°E 22.27°N in Chryse Planitia. The landing site is also known as Thomas Mutch Memorial Station. This was the first successful Mars landing. The lander was active until mission Sol 2243 (Nov. 11, 1982), while its companion orbiter operated until Aug. 7, 1980.
VL2 = Viking Lander 2: NASA probe that landed Sep. 3, 1976, at 134.28°E 48.27°N in Utopia Planitia. The landing site is also known as Gerald Soffen Memorial Station. The lander was active until mission Sol 1280 (Apr. 11, 1980); its companion orbiter operated until July 7, 1978.
MPF = Mars Pathfinder: NASA probe that landed July 4, 1997, at 326.75°E 19.47°N in Ares Vallis. The landing site is also known as Carl Sagan Memorial Station. The last transmission received from Mars Pathfinder lander came on mission Sol 93 (Oct. 7, 1997). The lander included a small rover called Sojourner, which traveled about 100 meters during the course of the mission.
MERA = Mars Exploration Rover A / Spirit: NASA rover that landed Jan. 4, 2004 (UTC; late Jan. 3 in US time) at 175.48°E -14.57°N in Gusev Crater. The landing site is also known as Columbia Memorial Station. Nominal mission duration was 90 sols (i.e., to Apr. 4, 2004), but the rover continued to operate for years. In May 2009 the rover became stuck in soft soil, which prevented it from best orienting its solar panels during the upcoming winter. The last communication from Spirit was received on Sol 2210 (Mar. 22, 2010), and NASA officially ended the mission in May 2011.
MERB = Mars Exploration Rover B / Opportunity: NASA rover that landed Jan. 25, 2004, at 354.47°E -1.95°N in Meridiani Planum. The landing site is also known as Challenger Memorial Station. Nominal mission duration was 90 sols (i.e., until Apr. 25, 2004), but the rover remained active until Sol 5111 of its mission (June 10, 2018), at which time it went into a sleep mode to wait out a "historic" dust storm. After numerous attempts to re-establish radio contact with Opportunity following the storm's abatement failed, the mission was declared at an end on Feb. 13, 2019. The rover had traveled about 45 km since landing.
PHX = Mars Phoenix: NASA Mars Scout probe that landed May 25, 2008 at 234.25°E 68.22°N in the Vastitas Borealis. Nominal mission period was to extend into late October 2008, after which the change of seasons at this latitude was expected to result in the lander no longer receiving enough sunlight for its solar panels to provide power. The last communication from the lander was received on mission Sol 156 (Nov. 2, 2008). Imagery later obtained by orbiters suggested that the weight of ice accumulated during the subsequent northern Mars winter had broken off the lander's solar panels.
The following missions either crashed during descent, or were unable to communicate following landing.
M2 = Mars 2 Lander: Soviet Union probe that crashed Nov. 27, 1971 at about 47°E -45°N in Hellas Planitia. It was probably damaged by descent during a global dust storm. Its companion orbiter operated for several months.
M3 = Mars 3 Lander: Soviet Union probe that landed Dec. 2, 1971 at about 202°E -45°N in Ptolemaeus Crater in Terra Sirenum. This was the first landing attempt with any degree of success. The lander began transmitting a test image on landing, but fell silent after about 20 sec and no further communication was received. The lander may have been damaged by descent during a global dust storm, or the dust storm may have caused a corona discharge. The companion Mars 3 Orbiter operated for several months.
M6 = Mars 6: Soviet Union probe that crashed Mar. 12, 1974 at about 19.42°W -23.90°N near Samara Valles. A few minutes of unreadable descent data were transmitted, but transmissions ceased in "direct proximity to the surface". The associated Mars 7 lander, scheduled to land three days earlier, failed to descend to the Mars surface due to retrorocket failure.
MPL = Mars Polar Lander: NASA probe that crashed Dec. 3, 1999 at about 195.3°W -76.1°N in the Planum Australae. Failure is believed due to premature descent engine shutdown. MPL also carried two small "Deep Space 2" microprobes to be dropped during descent and which presumably impacted about 60 km away at about 196.5°W -75.0°N.
BEA = Beagle 2: ESA/British Mars Express probe deployed by the Mars Express Orbiter on Dec. 25, 2003 for landing at 269.5°W 11.6°N in Isidis Planitia. Communication with Beagle 2 was not re-established after it separated from the orbiter. It was announced in January 2015 that the probe had been found about 5 km from its target landing site, apparently intact, but the impact of landing presumably prevented it from fully deploying. The Mars Express Orbiter was still in operation in 2019.
EDM = ExoMars 2016 Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module / Schiaparelli: ESA probe that crashed Oct. 19, 2016, at 353.79°E 2.07°S in Meridiani Planum, in the area of NASA's MER-B Opportunity rover. The probe suffered premature parachute ejection and retrorocket shutdown during descent. The impact location is reported to have been about 5.5 km west of the planned landing site. The companion ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) was still in operation in 2019.
VL1, VL2 and MPF landing site coordinates are those given by Kuchynka et al. (2014). MER-A and MER-B landing site coordinates are taken from papers by Li et al (2005, 2006, 2007).
PHX landing site coordinates were provided by D. Bass. MSL landing site coordinates were provided by A. Vasavada, B. Semenov and J. Crisp. NSYT landing site coordinates were provided by B. Semenov.