## Hypertext Help with LaTeX

### Binary and relational operators

Some "math" symbols are obtained by typing the corresponding keyboard character. Examples include

+ - = < >

**Note:** plus, minus, and equal sign may be used in
either text or math mode, but < and > are math mode only
(they produce inverted exclamation and question marks, respectively,
in text mode).

The following commands may be used only in math mode.

`\pm`- plus or minus sign`\mp`- minus or plus sign`\times`- times (an "x")`\div`- divided by sign`\ast`- an asterisk (centered)`\star`- a five-point star (centered)`\bullet`- a bullet`\circ`- an open bullet`\cdot`- a centered dot (see also,`\cdots`)

`\leq`- less than or equal to`\ll`- much less than`\subset`- is a subset of`\geq`- greater than or equal to`\gg`- much greater than`\equiv`- equivalence symbol`\sim`- similar to`\simeq`- similar or equal to`\approx`- approximately equal to`\neq`- not equal to`\per`- "perpendicular to" symbols`\propto`- proportional to

Note that "greater than" and "less than" are obtained simply by
entering `>` and `<`.

A slash, indicating "not" can be placed
through a symbol (or a letter) with the `\not` command.
For example, not less than is

\not<

and not less than or equal to is

\not\leq

If the slash isn't properly positioned it can be moved by
putting a math mode spacing command
between the `\not` and the symbol.

Related topics:

- Arrows
- Delimiters
- Greek letters
- Miscellaneous symbols
- Variable size symbols (sums, integrals, etc.)

See also Math Formulas,
Math Symbols

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Revised 7Jul 1995.