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New York City Research Initiative

Research Projects at New Jersey Institute of Technology

Go to projects in: 2014 | 2013 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004

New Jersey Institute of Technology — 2014

Boiling on Small Heaters in Earth and Low Gravity
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Boris Khusid

Team Members:
Dana Qasem, Undergraduate Student
Ian Peczak, High School Student
Stephanie Stern
Ezinwa Elele

Final Research Presentation
Summary

The validation of electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) technology for two-phase separation in microgravity. In space technologies, electric fields can be employed to exert a body force on two-phase flows to mitigate the effects of reduced gravity on the performance of thermal management systems.

Gas-liquid phase separation readily occurs in a terrestrial environment as a result of buoyancy forces. However, in a microgravity environment, bubbles do not rise out of a fluid due to the viscosity of the fluid and the absence of buoyant force, leading to bubble coalescence, and the formation of gas pockets during bulk liquid transfers. This leads to failure in storage, analysis and transportation of two-phase physical systems, presenting a problem to life-sustaining systems and biomedical research.

The main goal of the project is to study bubble dynamics in fluids subjected to alternating-current electric fields, and compare those results with a parabolic flight in which the experiment was recreated in high-g and microgravity.

New Jersey Institute of Technology — 2013

A Method for Drop-on-Demand Printing in Pharmaceutical Applications
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Boris Khusid

Team Members:
Tiffany Boney, High School Teacher
Dana Qasem, Undergraduate Student
Rai Munoz, Undergraduate Student
Ian Peczak, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

This report presents the validation of a novel electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) technology for two-phase separation in microgravity. In an environment with Earth gravity, gas-liquid phase separation readily occurs as a result of buoyancy forces. However, in a microgravity environment, bubbles do not rise out of a fluid due to the viscosity of the fluid and the absence of the buoyant force, leading to bubble coalescence, and the formation of gas pockets during transfers of bulk liquids. This presents a problem to life-sustaining systems and biomedical research as it can lead to failure in the storage, analysis and transportation of two-phase systems.
The main goal of the project is the study of bubble dynamics in fluids subjected to electric fields.

New Jersey Institute of Technology — 2008

A Method for Drop-on-Demand Printing in Pharmaceutical Applications
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Boris Khusid

Co-Principle Investigator (Co-PI):
Dr. Yueyang Shen

Team Members:
Ezinwa Elele, Graduate Student
Shilan Motamedvaziri, Graduate Student
Philip Polchinski, Middle School Teacher
John Bryndza, Undergraduate Student
Shiv Shah, High School Student
David Kelly, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Drop-on-Demand printing is the use of high voltages and frequencies to create a small, minute drop. When loaded with drugs, this drop allows for an accurate, reproducible method to create customizable drug dosages. By creating a potential difference between two electrodes, one can create an electrical field which will draw a drop of liquid down, creating a drop on the surface below. When drops are placed on a digestible, dissolvable surface, they create a drug delivery method that is both easy to take and customized to the patient.

Background Information: Today, drugs come in standardized amounts. A dosage that is too small for one person, may be too large for another. This is due to the fact that drugs must be shipped to pharmacies, hospitals, and doctors' offices from the companies that create them. There is also the problem that some drugs are insoluble in water or cannot be ingested through the mouth, thus they must be injected straight into the bloodstream. This project focuses on creating an accurate and reliable method to produce customizable drug dosages that could be easily taken orally. Using a Drop-on-Demand printing method, it would be possible to create customizable drug doses as well as create drugs on the spot, such as at hospitals and pharmacies, minimizing shipping only to that of raw materials.

New Jersey Institute of Technology — 2007

Electro-Hydrodynamic Filtration (EHD): Dielectrophoresis of SiO2 and Al2O3 Particles
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Boris Khusid

Team Members:
Ezinwa Elele , Graduate Student
Ian O'Leary, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Previous work has been done to design an electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) filter to remove soot particles from fresh oil. Currently, a fifth generation working model has been designed but requires efficiency tests to ensure success. Through the use of dielectrophoresis, the filter is able to capture micro-particles as contaminated oil runs through the filter. Captivity tests on soot particles were performed. Polarizability of Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) and Silica Oxide (SiO2) particles in lubricating oil was determined. Subsequently, captivity test on these two particles under non-uniform electric field is ongoing.

Use of Nanotechnology to Investigate Bonding Strengths in Thermite Welding
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Edward Dreizin

Team Members:
William Carroll, High School Teacher
Dimitrios Stamatis, Undergraduate Student
Nicholas Ruggirello, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

This projects has multiple objectives:
+ To find the optimal composition and density for nanocomposite welding.
+ Compare bonding strengths in different stoichiometrically determined (composites) pellets of Aluminum and Copper Oxide(CuO).
+ Attempt thermite welding two, copper-foil covered, fiberglass plates using 8Al-3CuO, 10Al-3CuO, 12Al-3CuO.

Results:
+ 8 Mol composite gave poor adhesion
+ 12 Mol was difficult to ignite
+ 10 Mol optimal adhesion when 60 volt applied to pellet between scratched copper coated pads
+ There was evidence of molten products i.e., alumina and CuAl alloy.
+ Future Work:
Focus on incorporating the alloy into the foil to create bonded interface.

New Jersey Institute of Technology — 2006

Welding of Small Parts Using Nanocomposite
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Edward Dreizin

Researchers:
Salil Mohan, Graduate Student
Ervin Beloni, Undergraduate Student
Ann Cannella, SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Objectives:
+ Identify conditions for the thermite welding suitable for joining small parts

+ Vary Composition, mixture density, and scale of mixing between components

Conclusion: None of the tests yielded the desired results. The thermite reaction was either too quick or too slow. The thermites were not dense enough and therefore future work should press them into a denser form, such as pellets. The pellets should then be ignited with laser to ensure a sufficient amount of heat is present for ignition.

Motion and Segregation of Particles in Dielectrophoretic Microfluidics
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Boris Khusid

Researchers:
Mike Yeksel, Graduate Student
Ezinwa Elele, Undergraduate Student
Belinda Kwok, SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
Summary

The purpose of this project is to test a dielectric filter that will be able to segregate particles in "dirty" lube oil subject to high gradient strong electric fields.

The main problem is short circuiting. When cutting the very fine mesh, the extra "hairs" of the wires come in contact with the rest of the mesh which, causes the short circuit.

The tape that was used to prevent short circuiting will be changed from the yellow tape to a brass "tape" (no adhesive). By changing the "tape" we will be using all inorganic material for the filter so that there won't be additional counts of particles.

The design is not filtering at the desired rate. To fix this, the filter will be enlarged so as to be able to filter more oil.

The design is also not filtering the smaller particles. However, if a larger filter is made, there will be more mesh for the oil to go through and thus smaller particles should be captured as well as the larger ones.

The making of the fifth filter is still in progress. The fifth filter will be tested with the brass "tape" to prevent contamination due to the adhesive. It will also be larger than the other filters that have been made thus far.

New Jersey Institute of Technology — 2005

The Micro- And Nano-Scale Behavior of Suspensions
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Boris Khusid

Researchers:

Belinda Kwok, SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
Summary

The purpose of the ongoing research is to study theoretically and experimentally the micro- and nano-scale behavior of suspensions and generate new experimental data on the electric field-driven particle transport and segregation phenomena in a flowing suspension with applications to electro-hydrodynamic micro-fluidic devices, actuators, separators, and bio-reactors.

Energetic Nanomaterials
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Edward Dreizin

Researchers:
Salil Mohan, Graduate Student
Swati Umbrajkar, Graduate Student
Nicolaas Van Nispen, SHARP Apprentice
Nancy Huemer, SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
2004 Final Research Presentation
Summary

New solid propellant additives are being developed and tested. These materials are nanocomposite metallic powders. The components are capable of a high-temperature exothermic reaction. Because of the nano-scale mixing between the components, the reactive surface is increased and respectively, much higher reaction rates are achieved as compared to conventional metal-based energetic materials. The research at NJIT deals with synthesis, characterization, and combustion testing of these new materials. A number of materials characterization techniques, such as electron microscopy, scanning calorimetry, optical spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and others are employed. Combustion testing includes experiments on laser ignition, aerosol flame propagation, and other techniques.

New Jersey Institute of Technology — 2004

Advanced Energetic Materials for Space Propulsion
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Edward Dreizin

Researchers:

Alexandre Ermoline, Graduate Student
Mirko Schoenitz

Harrison Hsu, SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
Summary

This research is aimed to develop and test new, metal-based fuel additives for solid propellants. Metals and metalloids, such as Al, Li, B, and others have very high combustion enthalpy. Adding powders of such metals in solid propellant formulations allows increasing the efficiency of the propulsion system and increasing the spacecraft payloads. However, in practical systems, the rate of combustion of metal additives is relatively low resulting in the incomplete reaction within the combustion chamber and, therefore, only partial release of the combustion energy. Thus, the goal of this research is to develop novel metal-based materials with the high combustion enthalpy and accelerated reaction rate.

New materials are synthesized at NJIT using mechanical alloying and arrested reactive milling. The produced materials are powders of metastable solid solutions, alloys, and three-dimensional nano-composites. Materials are characterized using x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and other advanced materials characterization techniques. Laboratory scale ignition and combustion tests are also being developed and carried out to assess the performance and reaction mechanisms of the new materials. Some of the recent results have been published in the references given below.

Supercritical Fluid Assisted Particle Synthesis
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Boris Khusid

Mentors:
Abhijit Gokhale, Graduate Student
Antoinette Kretsch, SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Our study shall constitute a theoretical framework for electro-hydrodynamics: field- and flow-induced transitions, suspension flow, particle motions, interparticle electric and hydrodynamic interactions, etc. The goal of the proposed research program is:

1) To test/develop/generalize the currently available theories of constitutive relations for the electric energy and stress in dispersive and dissipative multi-component systems.
2) To develop a theory for the dynamics of field induced phase transitions in concentrated flowing suspensions, including the collective phenomena of particle motions and segregation, shear-induced diffusion, diffusion-convection, and phase separation.
3) To develop a theory of the electro-hydrodynamics of suspensions which includes the coupled effects of the electrorheological response, dielectrophoresis, and shear-induced diffusion and re-suspension of concentrated suspensions under normal and low-gravity conditions, applicable to a broad range of particle polarizability which involves high particle/fluid density ratios.
4) To perform rigorous experimental tests of the theoretical predictions in ground-based experiments involving slow-rotating electric chambers in which the time averaged gravity force acting on a flowing suspension is zero in the rotating framework.
5) To perform rigorous tests of the theoretical predictions in KC-135 and in long-duration micro-gravity space experiments having true instantaneous near-zero gravity forces in order to investigate the field-driven phase-transition in a gravity-free environment and better estimate the effects of gravity-induced flows in ground-based experiments.
6) To generate new experimental data on the field-induced particle motions, segregation, and phase transitions in a flowing suspension with application to electro-hydrodynamic micro-fluidic devices, actuators, separators, and bio-reactors.

Entrainment Characteristics of the High Velocity Jets
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Chao Zhu

Researchers:

Jael Ulysse, High School Teacher
Qun Yu, Graduate Student
Tong H. Lee, Graduate Student
Melissa Deutsch, SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Quickly evaporating spray jets are used mostly for efficient engine design and rapid quenching. The injection of the fuel into the combustion chamber of the engine is in the form of a liquid spray. Here the fuel evaporates in the gaseous environment. The fuel is evaporated into the fumes before combustion. This evaporation is mostly dominated by the entrainment capability of the jet. So entrainment characteristics of a two-phase jet are important for a complete and efficient combustion of the fuel.
This research will elaborate the entrainment characteristic of high speed jets both single phase and two-phase. Nitrogen will be used as the jet medium and the entrainment characteristic of the gas phase as well as the liquid phase will be investigated. Flow visualization (enhanced laser-sheet), velocity measurements (Laser Doppler Velocimetry System) and concentration measurements (Oxigraf's Oxygen Concentration Measurement System) are the advanced measurement techniques that will be used in this research. The initial preparation of the experimental system is already completed.

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