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New York City Research Initiative

Research Projects at the City College of New York

Go to projects in: 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004

The City College of New York — 2014

Estimating PM2.5 in the Northeast United States Using Kriging
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Fred Moshary
Dr. Barry Gross
Dr. Nabin Malakar

Researchers:
Shifali Reddy
Daniel Vidal

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: PM2.5 is a form of particle pollution and is found primarily in smoke and haze. Particle pollution contains microscopic solids or liquid droplets that are able to enter deep into the lungs and cause serious health problems. PM2.5 has been linked to increased respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular disorders. Our goals from the research project are to obtain kriging results with variance and to obtain fusion between remote sensing and kriging.

Downscaling Global Climate Model Forecasts by Using Neural Networks
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Nabin Malakar
Dr. Barry Gross

Researchers:
Mark Bailey
Becca Latto
Pedro Placido

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: As a result of global climate change, it is necessary to provide high resolution regional climate data in order to assist in resource management and policy planning There is a greater demand to better forecast climate on a regional scale at less than 5 km resolution Global Climate Models (GCMs) are mathematical based models that are capable of forecasting long term climate, but are limited in their spatial resolution (generally 0.5 degrees) so they cannot be effective on a local scale. It is essential to adapt the low resolution GCM data to be able to apply it to regional models such as terrestrial ecosystems or hydrologic models. Statistical downscaling with neural networks can be utilized to effectively provide high resolution regional climate data.

The City College of New York — 2013

Multi Wavelength LIDAR Observing Aloft Aerosol Plumes in NYC
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Fred Moshary

Researchers:
Shifali Reddy, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: Aerosols are ubiquitous specks of matter from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources including, but not limited to, volcanoes, forest fires, biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. Due to the escalating aerosol concentration, effects on climate through the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the multitude of studies correlating airborne particulate matter with adverse health effects particularly in the respiratory, cardiovascular and allergic disease areas, the knowledge of airborne particulate matter has been of major interest to atmospheric scientists.

Mobile Coherent Doppler LIDAR: Proposed Technologies for, Scanning, Security and Wireless Communications
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Fred Moshary

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Mark Arend

Researchers:Kane Vinson, Undergraduate Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: The Coherent Doppler LIDAR system is stationed in a mobile research facility which is a semi-remote, conspicuous, and easily accessible target; therefore, it is necessary to equip it with a system that will notify the research members of any intrusion, power failure, and system malfunction. Since it is remote, the facility must also be equipped with a wireless communication from any location. I was also tasked to assist in the design of a scanner that would upgrade the current Coherent Doppler LIDAR system to enable a three dimensional view of the atmospheric aerosol content and wind profiling. The communication system was installed; the scanner is in its early phase of design; and the proposed alarm system was too costly for immediate purchase and are researching alternative methods.earch Initiative. More specifically, I was assigned to the Coherent Doppler LIDAR research project within the optical remote sensing lab. Coherent Doppler LIDAR utilizes light to detect atmospheric aerosol content and vertical wind profiling. The Coherent doppler LIDAR system is stationed in a mobile research facility which is a semi-remote, conspicuous, and easily accessible target; therefore, it is necessary to equip it with a system that will notify the research members of any intrusion, power failure, and system malfunction. Since it is remote, the facility must also be equipped with a wireless communication from any location. I was also tasked to assist in the design of a scanner that would upgrade the current Coherent Doppler LIDAR system to enable a three dimensional view of the atmospheric aerosol content and wind profiling. The communication system was installed; the scanner is in its early phase of design; and the proposed alarm system was too costly for immediate purchase and are researching alternative methods

Using Neural Networks to Predict PM2.5 Values
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Barry Gross

Researchers:Rebecca Latto, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: Aerosols are tiny particles that can have a dramatic impact on the earth. Aerosols come from volcanic eruptions, desert dust, and human activities such as the burning of coal and oil as well as tropical forests. Aerosol PM2.5 are aerosols with a diameter of 2. 5μm or less and can cause health problems such as heart and lung complications, upon extended exposure Extinction is a phenomenon in which aerosols scatter and/or absorb sunlight and is proportional to the "amount" of aerosols at a given point Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) numerically expresses the path integrated extinction caused by aerosols Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) is where aerosols are generally trapped in the atmosphere. For this reason, we expect Daily and seasonal variations of PBL height dynamics to have an important role in estimating PM2.5- AOD relationship.

Developing high resolution AOD imaging compatible with weather forecast model outputs for PM2.5 estimation
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Barry Gross

Researchers:
Daniel Vidal, Udergraduate Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: This project evaluates the potential of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at a wavelength of 0.55μm from both the Terra and Aqua satellites to estimate ground-level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the Northeast. In our research, we combine the advantages of single granule resolution with 1 degree coverage. An algorithm was created to take each granule and project each data point at a 0.1 degree resolution using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW); then, the projected granules are averaged to generate the high resolution 24-hour product. To improve spatial coverage, we adopt an iterative scheme to estimate cloud covered scenes by gradually reducing the resolution for those sectors, creating a hybrid map which maximizes resolution and coverage.

The City College of New York — 2012

Urban Planetary Boundary Layer Height Detection From LIDAR Measurements in New York City
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Fred Moshary

Researchers:
Thaelis Suriel, Udergraduate Student
Jose Ovalle, High School Student
Kelvin Quarcoo, High School Teacher

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: The Planetary boundary layer (PBL) height measurements are important in improving prediction of the local air quality and weather-climate related research. LIDAR is one of active remote sensing tools to measure PBL-height through observing aerosol vertical distribution. In this study, we make the LIDAR observations over one month period ( June 2012 to July 2012) in New York City, and the PBL-heights are derived with the wavelet transform technique (WCT). We compared the gradient method and WCT method for deriving PBL-heights which generally show good agreement. The cases analysis show the PBL-height variation day-by-day in the NYC-Urban area.

Using Neural Network Techniques to Predict Surface PM2.5 Levels from Optical and Meteorological Data
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Barry Gross

Researchers:
Michael Hirschberger, Udergraduate Student
Nkosi Alleyne, High School Student
Chris Widi, High School Teacher

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: Atmospheric aerosols have the property of scattering and absorbing sunlight, a process known as extinction. The degree to which extinction occurs is of great importance to studying the earth's climate because it can help indicate the amount of sunlight, and therefore energy, that is transmitted to the surface. Furthermore, PM2.5 (fine-mode aerosols), has been linked to health problems such as heart and lung disease as well as to heart attacks, asthma, and bronchitis. This study uses neural network techniques to predict surface PM2.5 levels based on different optical and meteorological "input" data and surface PM2.5 "target" data obtained locally. Our results show a general increase in R-value and decrease in root-mean-square error (RMSE) as more inputs were incorporated into the experiments. The addition of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height caused the greatest improvement in these values. For example, the fine-mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) input experiment yielded an R-value of 0.51 and an RMSE of 6.518. The fine-mode AOD and PBL height input experiment yielded an R-value of 0.747 and an RMSE of 4.973. This supports the idea that if aerosols are well mixed in the PBL, then the height of the PBL is important in relating surface PM2.5 to the full column AOD. Based on this study, neural networks could be a very useful alternative to standard correlation techniques in relating optical and meteorological data to surface PM2.5 data to help predict future surface PM2.5 levels.

Comparing Microwave Radiometer and LIDAR Techniques in Determining Planetary Boundary Layer Height
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Barry Gross

Researchers:
Michael Hirschberger, Udergraduate Student
Nkosi Alleyne, High School Student
Chris Widi, High School Teacher

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: The height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is a critical measurement in assessing atmospheric phenomena that have effects on earth's climate. In particular, PBL height is important in relating the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to surface PM2.5 (fine-mode aerosols), especially when there is a high degree of aerosol mixing in the PBL. The importance of the PBL height makes it crucial that independent methods are developed to accurately measure it for future comparison to models. This study compared an indirect method of obtaining the PBL height using Microwave Radiometer (MWR) data to a more accurate method that uses data obtained from the Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) instrument, which directly measures PBL height. To obtain PBL height from MWR data, calculations were performed to find the virtual temperature gradient. The height at which the maxima of this gradient occurred was determined to be the PBL height for that particular time interval. Our results show generally reasonable correlations between the two methods. The Signal to Noise of LIDAR makes LIDAR particularly useful in determining the effective PBL height that the aerosols are trapped in. Both of these methods should be useful in assessing model PBL heights.

The City College of New York — 2011

Integration of Multiple Remote Sensing and In Situ Observations to Assess Regional Air Quality Monitoring Forecasts
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Dr. Barry Gross

Researchers:
Arianna Moshary, Udergraduate Student
Chayma Boussayoud, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: In this project, we compare and analyze different kinds of available data on atmospheric aerosols and ozone. By retrieving and processing different kinds of data, we are looking to understand trends in New York and to compare it to a National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Model. Aerosols have a large impact on climate and together with ozone can have hazardous effects on human health. Furthermore, aerosols come in so many different physical and chemical types that characterizing their behavior presents a challenge. Therefore, it is important to try to bring together available data to understand their dynamics.

For our study, we are drawing data from a number of resources including The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC), City College of New York, and the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET).

In addition to more conventional surface measurements, we explore the vertical structure of particulates using an instrument called a ceilometer. To ensure ceilometer backscatter can be used to quantify aerosols, we demonstrate strong correlations between them, indicating that, while they measure different aerosols and aerosol properties, they still trend together. Furthermore, we show diurnal trends for both aerosol and ozone and a strong dependence for aerosols on location in New York State. When compared to data forecasts from the NCEP Model, we have been able to validate some of the predictions but also find some inconsistencies that we hope to be able to understand further. Another resource that we have hope to include are satellite data on Aerosol Optical Depth to explore the large scale aerosol distributions in Megacities in comparison to CMAQ

Comparison of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Surface Particulate Matter (PM 2.5) for New York State
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Fred Moshary

Researchers:
Olivia Reed, Undergraduate Student
Arnold Arrozal, High School Teacher

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: Six areas within the New York State were selected based on their geographical locations as urban (2 areas), suburban (2 areas) and rural (areas). These areas were selected to compare the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface particulate matter (PM2.5). AOD was measured by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) Aerosol/Smoke Product (GASP) instruments while surface particulate matter (PM2.5) was measured by Tapered Element Oscillating MicroBalance (TEOM).

Overall, the results showed varying degrees of correlation. The R2 of PM2.5 between two areas ranged from a low 0.303 to a moderately strong 0.723. This result suggested that when the PM2.5 between two areas is being compared, the R2 becomes weaker as the distance between the areas increases. However, the R2 of MODIS AOD between two areas ranged from a moderately strong 0.69 to a very strong 0.919.

It was also found that the correlation (r) between PM2.5 and MODIS AOD in each selected area was ranging from a moderately strong 0.64 to a very strong 0.93 with the exception of urban areas (City College of New York (CCNY) and Maspeth) where r was not available. However, the correlation (r) between PM2.5 and GASP AOD in each selected area was ranging from a very weak -0.05 to a moderately weak 0.23. This results shows that MODIS AOD and GASP AOD were not consistent in measuring PM2.5.

It can be said that TEOM and MODIS AOD posted a moderately strong to a very strong correlation in measuring PM2.5 while GASP AOD did not.

Comparative Wind Speed Through Doppler Sounding with Pulsed Infrared LIDAR
Team Members

Principle Investigators (PI):
Dr. Fred Moshary

Researchers:
Tristan Schwartzman, Undergraduate Student
Lowell Brazin, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: Coherent pulsed LIDAR is receiving increasing attention as a method for detecting aerosol concentration in the air and detecting wind speed. Wind speed detection, in particular, is essential to modeling air flow patterns to analyze pollution transmission and determine optimal locations for wind turbines. City College of New York is currently developing a mobile coherent Doppler LIDAR station to detect wind speed. In Doppler sounding with coherent LIDAR, pulses are transmitted into the atmosphere. These pulses reflect off aerosol particles in the sky and return to the system. The motion of these aerosols can be measured based on the Doppler shift of the wavelengths transmitted. With a mobile system, it is possible to point at the same location from three or more different directions, and thus to calculate an accurate vector wind speed for the area.

The station in development at City College of New York uses a 1.54 μm near-infrared pulsed beam. This wavelength is safe to the eye and provides an efficient balance of back-scattering and absorption. Signal analysis and detection is accomplished using heterodyne detection. In this process, two signals of slightly different frequency are created. Shifting can then be detected by comparing the initial modified frequency to the return frequency. Finally, a basic wedge prism i0073c is used to control the zenith angle of the beam as it is transmitted to the atmosphere. This will enable data to be taken from a variety of directions.

The City College of New York — 2010

Atmospheric Concentration Retrieval Using a Quatum Cascade Laser System and Mid-Infrared Technologies
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Fred Moshary

Researchers:
Paul Corrigan
Paolo Castillo, Graduate Student
Jensen Cheong, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: Ozone (O3) and Ammonia (NH3) are air pollutants which pose a threat to human beings. They are some of the main causes for lung cancer and respiratory damage. In order to prevent future illnesses we first need to understand what is in our atmosphere and in what quantities they come in. As the world is rapidly industrializing, more pollutants are being released into the air. Quantum Cascade Lasers is a technology of the late 20th century and is promising in its role in remote sensing. Along with mid-infrared technologies, this experiment aims to accurately retrieve the atmospheric concentration of gases as a first step in humans race to understand our environment.

Measuring Aerosol Optical Depth Through Use of a MFRSR
Team Members

Principle Investigators (PI):
Dr. Fred Moshary
Dr. Barry Gross
Dr. Tom Legbandt

Researchers:
Erhan Posluk, Undergraduate Student
Lowell Brazin, High School Student
Peter Martens, High School Teacher

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: There is a growing concern that our planet's climate is changing dramatically due to the aerosols in our atmosphere. Aerosols are small solid and liquid particles suspended in gas that can reflect sunlight and alter cloud formations. On a global scale, they can dramatically affect global warming while on a local scale, modify precipitation as well as having an adverse impact on health. To measure particles directly on a large scale is impossible so remote sensing techniques that measure the optical response to aerosols must be used. The most useful "proxy" for air-pollution is the attenuation of light through the atmosphere (i.e Aerosol Optical Depth).
Our study focuses on evaluating the quality of air by measuring the Aerosol Optical Depth with a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). A MFRSR is an instrument that simultaneously measures direct, diffuse, and total irradiance at six different wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm). By identifying the irradiance at the ground and the position of the sun in the sky (the zenith angle), we can calculate the Atmospheric Optical Depth using Langley Regression; then ultimately calculate the Aerosol Optical Depth by subtracting the Molecular Optical Depth. With a measurement of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), it's possible to estimate aerosol properties including size, type, and amount of the aerosols in the atmosphere. For our study, we focused on the AOD levels for Lamont-Doherty.

The City College of New York — 2009

Detecting The Effects of Severe Flooding in Iowa
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Maroaune Temimi

Researchers:
Pradipat Sukumal, Graduate Student
Ruben Neira, Undergraduate Student
Amritpal Bharth, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: This study focused on measuring the quantity and quality of vegetation growth throughout the state of Iowa as well as examining the most impacted region in the state, the region in and around Iowa City and Cedar Rapids, through remote sensing. The study utilized three types of data: surface reflectance, Leaf Area Index (LAI), and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). LAI revealed that, during the flood period, vegetation levels in 2008 were at a lower level than those of 2007. It also, unexpectedly, indicated that a post-July vegetation boom for 2008, giving it a conspicuously higher vegetation value than that of 2007. NDVI data corroborated previous findings even though it differentiated between healthy, unhealthy, and dead vegetation. In general, we expect our findings to be supported in the near future and anticipate results on how long the soil was saturated after the flood to maybe help explain the findings of this study.

Inter-Comparison of Satellite Algal Bloom Detection Techniques Using Surface and Top of Atmosphere Signals
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Alexander Gilerson

Researchers:
Ruhul Amin, Undergraduate Student
May Chum, Undergraduate Student
Pierre Ramos, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: Within our very beaches exist prehistoric plant-like beings known as Algae. They are a hazard to humans, a danger to marine life and a nuisance to coastal businesses. Because of this, they must be tracked down and identified using satellite sensors and different techniques using those sensors. We will investigate the difference between various atmospheric signals and analyze the image produced by distinct imaging techniques. We have found there to be little to no difference between the top and bottom of the atmosphere signal as well as many flaws in a popularly used imaging technique. we also analyzed two possible techniques that might be the solution to those very problems, together being an extremely powerful tool in thesearch for Harmful Algal Blooms.

Modeling Optical Properties of Aerosols Using Microphysical Retrievals from Air Quality Models
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Barroy Gross

Researchers:
Gary Bouton, Graduate Student
Crae Sosa, Undergraduate Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: The main purpose of this project is to verify that CMAQ (Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality) data, is correct. CMAQ is microphysical data retrieved using actual measurements of aerosols in conjunction with models that use optical properties to predict that data. The primary focus is to use instruments at City College to retrieve data and create new models that will be tested against those of CMAQ. By using the optical properties of aerosols, it might be possible to predict the empirical measurements of air quality and pollution over a specific area. The problem is that there are quite a few variables that must be considered when creating these models. Some of these properties can only be gained through empirical measurements; however there are some that can be computed mathematically.

The City College of New York — 2008

Detecting & Monitoring Harmful Algal Blooms on Florida Coast
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Alex Gilerson

Mentor:
Ruhul Amin, Graduate Student

Researchers:
Jonathan Tien, Undergraduate Student
Joseph Tuzzino, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: Karenia brevis (K. brevis) blooms occur regularly on the Florida Coast. However, detection still remains a challenge from space due to the uncertainty of atmospheric correction, and interference from high concentrations of organic and inorganic materials in optically complex coastal waters. Our results show that Fluorescence Line Height (FLH) algorithm gives inaccurate results in highly scattering waters. So we used a simple red band difference technique (RBD) and a normalized difference technique, K. brevis bloom index (KBBI), proposed by Amin et al., 2008, to detect and classify the potential areas of K. brevis blooms from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). We applied these algorithms to satellite images for the blooms documented in the literature and our analysis shows that the RBD and KBBI detect, monitor and classify K.brevis blooms more precisely than FLH.

LIDAR Atmospheric Remote Sensing
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Samir Ahmed

Researchers:
Junior Nkrumah, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: Light detection and ranging (lidar) is a technique in which a beam of light is used to make range-resolved remote measurement. A lidar emits a beam of light, that interacts with the medium or object under study. Some of this light is scattered back toward lidar. The backscattered light captured by the lidar receiver is used to determine some properties. Lidar for Atmosphere Remote Sensing gives a general introduction to lidar, it focus on the differential absorption and techniques as well as monitoring aerosols, water vapor and minor species in troposphere and lower stratosphere.

The Response of Land Surface Temperatures to Changing Ocean Temperature Gradients
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Manuel Zevallos

Mentor:
Charlene Chan-lee, High School Teacher
Galia Espinal, High School Teacher

Researchers:
Heather Glickman, Graduate Student
Amritpal Bharth, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Abstract: Climatological studies for temperature trends in coastal urban environments in the Northeast have been largely uninvestigated. Past research has shown that Diurnal Asymmetrical Warming (DAW) has been occurring along western coast of the United States. Previous results showed that average minimum temperatures have been rising are a higher rate than the rate of increase of maximum temperatures in coastal urban environments. This study explored how surface temperatures react to increasing regional coastal temperatures under an urban environment such as New York. This project involved temperature data analysis of 27 weather stations in and around the New York City region, as well as sea surface temperature analysis. Findings were often consistent with the DAW previously discussed. Overall, in urban coastal areas there was a generally greater increase in minimum temperatures, compared to maximum temperatures, while this was often not the case in corresponding rural regions.

The City College of New York — 2007

Retrieval of Water Properties from Remote Sensing Reflectance
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Fred Moshary

Co-Principle Investigator (Co-PI):
Dr. Alex Gilerson

Team Members:
Candy Barbaran, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Long Term Objective: Improve algorithms for instruments aboard satellites in order to make Fluorescence measurements of algae more accurate.

Procedure:
* Satellite imagery was retrieved through the use of SeaDAS for the areas of Chesapeake bay and Long Island Sound which are some locations from which we retrieve in situ data sets.
* Hydrolight was used to simulate Coastal water conditions.
* Several runs were made using Hydrolight using different absorption coefficients and concentration levels for each component. (Chlorophyll, CDOM , Mineral and water)
* Data Retrieved from Hydrolight was than graphed and analyzed to determine the effects of concentration of the various components for coastal waters.
* Further work would be to validate the accuracy of our algorithms when used in complex waters using simulated data sets.

Conclusions:
* Each component has a signature absorption and backscattering spectrum
* The steep slope of CDOM absorption has an inverse relationship with the magnitude of reflectance in the blue area of the spectrum (400-500).
* Maximum absorption peaks from 650-700 nm cause minimal reflectance in that part of the spectrum.
* There's a red shift for cases of high chlorophyll concentration.
* All of these observations need to be taken into account when working in the inverse ; in other words when using remote sensing reflectance to retrieve Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs).

The Spectroscopic Study of Cr4+ Doped CaO-GeO2-Li2O-B2O3(Al2O3) transparent glass-ceramics
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Alexei Bykov

Co-Principle Investigator (Co-PI):
Dr. V. Petricevic

Team Members:
David Deutsch, High School Teacher
Saulin Chan-Lee, High School Teacher
Victor Ortiz, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Objectives:
* Study the behavior of Cr-doped Calcium Germanium glass media during synthesis and devitrification (i.e., heat treatment) * A number of glass compositions yield transparent glass-ceramics after heat treatment
* Crystallites≤ 1 m
* Cr doped glass ceramics exhibit a broad band of fluorescence (1000-1600nm wavelength; peaking at 1280nm)
* Optical properties similar to CUNYITE crystals (i.e.,Cr4+: Ca2GeO4 )
* Absorption and Fluorescence Spectra of the samples help better understand the optical properties of glass-ceramics

Conclusions:
* Crystallization in glass media varies according to temperature and heat treatment time
* Chromium-doped glass ceramics emit fluorescence around wavelengths of 1200-1300nm, similar to CUNYITE crystals
* Manganese-doped glass ceramics is expected to have a broad band fluorescence between 550~700nm when excited at 488nm
* The change in color is believed to have to occur due to crystallization all inside of the Mn-doped Glass Media
* The behavior of this substance is still unsure

X-ray Diffraction Study of New York City Aerosols Particles
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Jeff Steiner

Co-Principle Investigator (Co-PI):
Dr. Elizabeth Rudolph

Team Members:
Nick Steiner, Graduate Student
Junior Nkrumah, High School Student

Final Research Presentation
Summary

This research is the study of Aerosols in New York City. Aerosols particles can cause acid rain as well as cardiovascular and respiratory problems. Due to the increasing population and pollution in New York City aerosol concentration is increasing. Some aerosols are produced naturally (pollen, spores) and others originate from burning fossil fuels, human activities and organic molecules. To determine aerosol concentration in NYC, samples are collected by using a system called, Met-One E Bam and determine the aerosol composition, we use X-ray diffraction, which is used to find compounds in the sample by recognizing the structure.

The City College of New York — 2006

Effects of Fluorescence Self Absorption of Algae in Sea Water
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Fred Moshary

Mentor:
Dr. Alex Gilerson

Researchers:
Annie Becerra

Candy Barbaran, SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Goal: Improve algorithms for instruments aboard satellites in order to make fluorescence measurements of algae more accurate.

Purpose of the experiment: Analyze the spectral shape of chlorophyll fluorescence and absorption in order to detect patterns in the fluorescence spectral shift — detecting patterns in the spectral shift will allow us to eliminate all other factors and measure pure fluorescence.

Conclusions: Both types of algae in the original concentration have strong absorption and cause spectral shift of fluorescence

This spectral shift should be taken into account in the analysis of fluorescence and reflectance data for the waters with high chlorophyll (algae) concentrations

Nanoscale Chromium 4+ Doped Olivine Crystallites in Glass Ceramics for Near Infrared Optical Amplifiers & Lasers
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Ralph Alphano

CO-Principle Investigator (Co-PI):
Dr. Manuel Zevallos

Researchers:
Dr. Alexei Bykov, Mentor
Jorge Franco

Victor Ortiz, SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Objective:
To make glass ceramics using different heat treatment procedures & to study the optical properties of nanoscale glass ceramics.
To find the optimal temperature and time required for mass crystallization of nanoscale crystallites to occur.
To control the process of crystallization via time and temperature.
Our long term goal is to create a new material for optical amplifiers and fiber-lasers to enhance communication systems and information transformation.

Conclusion:
Crystallization occur in glass media during heat treatment.
The size of crystallites varied according to the different temperature and time they were exposed to.
The absorption spectrum shows that large crystallites were formed in a glass sample that underwent heat treatment of 520°C for 1 hour. While nanoscale crystallites were formed in a glass sample that underwent a heat treatment of 470°C for 6 hours.
Many glass samples became less transparent after undergoing heat treatment higher than 500°C. We believe this is because crystallites larger than 1μm were formed.
Some glass samples released a high amount of emission around the wavelengths of 1200-1300nm, which is similar to cunyite crystals.

X-Ray Diffraction Study of Minerals Produced in a Large Volcanic Eruption
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Jeff Steiner

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Liz Rudolph

Researchers:
Junior Nkrumah, SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Purpose:

To better understand how large igneous rock bodies form by studying the compositional changes of basalt in the sill.


Results:

X-ray diffraction patterns for 3 basalt samples.
The peaks represent the minerals pyroxene and plagioclase
Notice the difference in minerals present indicated by the labeled peak

The City College of New York — 2005

Optical Sensing of Microorganisms In The Environment
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Jeff Steiner

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Liz Rudolph

Researchers:
Sarah Moshary
Asal Khanbilvardi
Amanda Steiner

Courtney Cohen,SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
Summary

The goal of the research is to develop non-invasive and rapid methods to detect the presence of bacteria and other biological contaminants in the environment. The research targets include methods for determining the responses of bacteria to germicides and environmental stress, such as biofilm production and the development of spores. The research also evaluates associations developed by bacteria with environmental aerosols and other colloids. The objectives of this project are:
1. Develop fluorescence, Raman and elastic scattering spectroscopic analysis tools to detect, classify and monitor viability of microorganisms under different conditions. These tools will be based on their size, shape and fluorescence properties.
2. Develop a continuous bacteria-sampling station at CCNY within the NASA-URC Center for climate- and health-related models.
3. Develop methods for characterizing dust-bacteria-molecular associations stressing African Dust-Bacteria properties, and tracing the trajectories of aerosols using MM5 mesoscale weather modeling.

Nanoscale Chromium 4+ Doped Olivine Crystallites in Glass Ceramics for Near Infrared Optical Amplifiers & Lasers
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Ralph Alphano

CO-Principle Investigator (Co-PI):
Dr. Manuel Zevallos

Researchers:
Mikhail Sharonov
Thandar Myint

Fayette Colon, SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Program History:

The Center for Optical Sensing and Imaging (COSI) at City College of CUNY is a NASA funded University Research Center focusing on research and education in Optical Sensing and Imaging areas, of interest to NASA.
The center brings together teams from two major NASA programs at City College: the NASA IRA on Tunable Solid State Lasers and Optical Imaging, and NASA PAIR on Remote Sensing and Environmental/Climate Studies.
The mission of COSI is to develop enabling optical technologies, laser instrumentation, and methods for sensing and imaging of the Earth and the environment and to recruit and train underrepresented minority students at the high school, undergraduate and graduate levels, as well as to contribute with NASA's mission and vision by interacting with their scientists in NASA related research.
The Center is headed by Dr. Robert R. Alfano, Distinguished Professor of Science and Engineering at CCNY, and Dr. Samir Ahmed, Herbert G. Kayser Professor of Electrical Engineering.
21st Century Cutting Edge Research in the following areas:
* Development of lasers and detectors for use in remote sensing and optical Communications
" Imaging targets and transmitting optical signal through clouds, fog, ice, and rain
* Detection of vegetation and land cover
* Atmospheric and ocean monitoring
* Measurement of ocean waters temperature, &
* Sensing of microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) in the environment.

Novel Light Sources
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Prof. V. Petricevic, Ph. D.

Researchers:
Dr. A. Bykov, Senior Scientist
Cesear Pier

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Objective & Significance:

The goal of the research is the development of a new class of tunable lasers that provides much broader wavelength tunability for sensing, imaging, and communication applications of interest to NASA. We will focus our efforts on developing the following laser sources:

Hyperspectral Imaging
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Fred Moshary

Researchers:
Barry Gross
Heather Glickman, Graduate Student
Travis Bramble,SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Objective & Significance:

Aerosol retrieval over land is complicated by the ground reflectance properties. Over dark vegetation, it is often assumed that any reflectance return comes only from aerosol contribution. However, this can still be significantly in error since often the dark pixels are still brighter than the aerosol contribution. This project examines the possibility of using spatial reflectance data to determine trends in the VIS/NIR channel as a function of the MID IR channel. Since we can expect that if the MIR channel R goes to zero then the land contribution goes to zero. Extrapolating the channels to R=0 allows an estimate of the aerosol contribution.

The City College of New York — 2004

Nanoscale Chromium 4+ Doped Olivine Crystallites in Glass Ceramics for Near Infrared Optical Amplifiers & Lasers
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Robert Alfano

Co-Principle Investigator (Co-PI):
Dr. Manuel Zevallous

Researchers:
Professor V. Petricevic
Professor Alex Bykov
Christopher Smith, High School Teacher
Nick Merole, Undergraduate Student
Caesar Pereira, SHARP Apprentice
Denise Asafu-Adjei,SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Program History:

The Center for Optical Sensing and Imaging (COSI) at City College of CUNY is a NASA funded University Research Center focusing on research and education in Optical Sensing and Imaging areas, of interest to NASA.

The center brings together teams from two major NASA programs at City College: the NASA IRA on Tunable Solid State Lasers and Optical Imaging, and NASA PAIR on Remote Sensing and Environmental/Climate Studies.

The mission of COSI is to develop enabling optical technologies, laser instrumentation, and methods for sensing and imaging of the Earth and the environment and to recruit and train underrepresented minority students at the high school, undergraduate and graduate levels, as well as to contribute with NASA's mission and vision by interacting with their scientists in NASA related research.
The Center is headed by Dr. Robert R. Alfano, Distinguished Professor of Science and Engineering at CCNY, and Dr. Samir Ahmed, Herbert G. Kayser Professor of Electrical Engineering.

21st Century Cutting Edge Research in the following areas:
* Development of lasers and detectors for use in remote sensing and optical communications
* Imaging targets and transmitting optical signal ough clouds, fog, ice, and rain
* Detection of vegetation and land cover
* Atmospheric and ocean monitoring
* Measurement of ocean waters temperature, and

* Sensing of microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) in the environment.

Optical Remote Sensing Through Passive Radiometry
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Fred Moshary

Researchers:
Xavier Estevez,SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
Summary

Our effort is in the area of optical remote sensing. The effort in this area is divided into applications to atmospheric, coastal, and land use areas. The atmospheric remote sensing area has a broad scope, including ground-based RS and satellite data analysis. In the ground based effort, research is ongoing in the active Lidar remote sensing and passive sky radiometry. The SHARP project will focus on passive radiometry using CIMEL and MFRSR radiometer, both used throughout networks at GSFC and GISS, to monitor aerosol loading in our region. Several of these instruments are deployed throughout our region and the study will focus on use and correlation of products from these instruments to understand aerosol sources and size distributions that impact NE United States.

Characterization of Aerosols in New York City by Optical & X-Ray Methods
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Jeff Steiner

Researchers:
Liz Rudolph Ph.D.
Karin Block Ph.D.

Michelle Alvarado
Aparna Lakhankar, Graduate Student
Marc Cesaire, Graduate Student

Professor Pengfei Zhang

William Dennis, SHARP Apprentice
John Sangobawole,SHARPApprentice

Final Research Presentation
2004 Final Research Presentation
Summary

This research focuses on identifying the major chemical species that are transported as solid particulates in aerosols. Aerosol characterization will result in quantifying bulk air masses to identify source locations and point source polluters. Characterization is accomplished using Optical Fluorescence Microscopy to identify aerosol intensity and xray fluorescence to reveal composition.

Design and Characterization of Novel Hybrid Nanostructured Materials
Team Members

Principle Investigator (PI):
Dr. Roger Dorsinville

Researchers:
Stephen Brandes,SHARP Apprentice

Final Research Presentation
Summary

This project will design, develop, numerically model and characterize novel hybrid nanostructured materials; as well as, construct and study multi-layer thin film structures for various applications, including but not limited to: opto electronics, sensor protection for photo sensors, photovoltaic arrays, optical limiters, optical storage, and energy conservation. This research will consist of the following components:
1. Fabrication of hybrid nanostructured materials
2. Thin film structures of hybrid nanostructured materials
3. Characterization and numerical modeling of nanostructured materials and thin film structures
4. Applications and numerical modeling of the hybrid nanostructured materials, thin film structures and devices.

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