User's Guide

(Updated Dec. 30, 2015)

Mars24 is a cross-platform Java application that displays a Mars "sunclock", a graphical representation of Mars showing the current day- and nightsides of Mars, along with numerical readouts of the time in 24-hour format. Other displays include a plot showing the relative orbital positions of the four inner planets, a panorama showing the solar path as seen from a given location on Mars, and the Mars analemma.

Mars24 cannot accurately determine the time on Mars unless your computer's time, time zone and date are set correctly.

Please read the accompanying Technical Notes on Mars Solar Time for a more detailed discussion about the meaning of the various display values and for definitions of Mars time units.

When first launched, Mars24 will displays two windows: a display of the time on Mars and on Earth and a display showing a sunclock map of Mars. This second display window can be changed to show the orbital positions plot, the panorama plot for a location on Mars, or the Mars analemma.

A window with controls for setting the time and display parameters can be invoked using menu commands.

Time Display

Mars24's first graphic display is a list of three or more clock readouts. It always shows two readouts for Earth time, one of them for UT (Universal Time, essentially the same as Greenwich Mean Time, GMT) and one for your local time zone, as determined from your computer's time settings. The third readout always shown is the time on Mars's prime meridian, or "Airy Mean Time" (AMT), an analogy to Greenwich Mean Time on Earth.

When Mars24 is first launched, it will also show the mission clocks for the two currently active lander missions: MSL Curiosity and MER-B Opportunity. Curiosity is the rover that touched down early Aug. 6, 2012, while Opportunity is the rover that has been active on Mars since January 2004.

To add additional clock readouts to the time display, click on the "plus" button in the lower left of the display window. A dialog will appear offering you a variety of choices for setting up the readout. You can select a lander mission clock, the time at a specified Martian landmark, or at a location specified by a pair of longitude-latitude coordinate. (Please note that Mars24 expects lon-lat coordinates to be entered with "planetocentric" values).

For example, if you would like to display the time at a Olympus Mons, you might select a clock view type of "Named Landmark" and then select "Olympus Mons" in the landmark menu. Alternatively, you might specify a view type of a lon-lat location and manually enter the coordinates for Olympus Mons (see endnote 1).

If you specify a view type of either a named landmark or a lon-lat location, you will also need to specify a clock "format" to choose between showing the location's Local Mean Solar Time (LMST), Local True Solar Time (LTST), or local mean zonal time (AMT+N). (See the "Notes about Mars Time" page for further information about these formats.).

The date "shown" will be the Ls value, a measurement in degrees of Mars's orbital position relative to when the vernal (spring) equinox occurs in its northern hemisphere.

If you choose to display a lander mission time, the readout will show a time of day and a "date" used by mission planners. Depending on the particular mission, the time of day is defined a bit differently, but essentially there are offsets from Local Mean Solar Time (LMST) at the landing site. (See the "Notes about Mars Time" help page or the FAQ for further detail on the offset amounts) The "date" is shown as a Sol number. This is the count of the number of Martian days since landing. For MER-A and MER-B, "Sol 1" is defined as the Martian solar day on which the lander touched down, and the day before landing was "Sol -1". For Phoenix and MSL, mission planners specified touchdown day as "Sol 0".

If you add a clock readout to the time display and later decide you no longer need to see that readout, then click on the readout in the display, and then click on the "minus" button in the lower left of the window.

At the lower right of the time display is another button that shows a clock face. Click on this button to bring up the Settings window and show the time controls.

Setting the Earth Time

This "Mars24 Settings" window is divided into three tabbed panels: one tab allows you to specify how to set the Earth time used in all calculations, the second to specify properties of the large graphical display, and the third is for miscellaneous options.

The Earth time settings panel gives you four choices for specifying what time on Earth should be used in making all the various calculations that Mars24 must perform, both in determining the Mars time and generating the displays.

The first Earth time choice is to use the current time, in other words, now, whenever "now" happens to be.

The second choice is to add some offset to the current time on Earth. For example, if you need information about the time on Mars exactly 100 Earth hours from now, you would select this option and enter "100" in the hours field. Note that when you select this option, the clocks in the time display keep on ticking, but are just offset from the current time by whatever amount you entered.

To find out the time on Mars that corresponds to a specific Earth time, you would select the third choice and enter a time of day in the first input field and a date in the second field. The time and date must be in UT (Universal Time), which is in everyday usage effectively the same as Greenwich Mean Time.

The fourth and fifth options for choosing what Earth time should be displayed involve specification of the Julian Date (JD). This is the number of days that have passed since noon on Jan. 1, 4713 BCE. This count is a very useful value in astronomy and is often used to indicate the dates of astronomical events and observations, especially those which predate use of the modern Gregorian calendar. Because the Julian Date for modern dates is a relatively large and unwieldy number, the fifth input choice is to use the , the number of days since midnight starting Nov. 17, 1858.

Next in the time settings is a checkbox that allows you to specify how you would like the Earth date formatted in the time display windows. Normally it is shown in ISO format, i.e., "YYYY-MM-DD", but if you opt to show the date as day-of-year (a scheme that planetary mission controllers often use) then the format changes to "YYYY-DDD".

Also in the time settings are two pop-up menus that allow you to specify the units in which the distance between Earth and Mars is displayed. One menu is for displaying the one-way light time (OWLT), the amount of time that it takes light to travel between the planets. The other menu is for selecting between simple units of length, either kilometers or astronomical units.

Graphic Display Window and Settings

Mars24's large display window initially shows a sunclock of Mars. The other three types of plots that may be shown in this window are of orbital positions, a local panorama, and the Mars analemma. Use the menu at the top of the plot tab in the settings window to choose which of these to display.

Sunclock Display

The sunclock is simply a map showing the dayside and nightside of Mars, Initially this map uses an "equirectangular" map projection. It is likely you will want a view that shows Mars as a globe, in which case you would set the sunclock's map projection menu to show an "orthographic" map. The Mollweide projection is also a popular choice as it is equal-area.

The source map control allows you to choose between viewing several different map images in the sunclock display. The two most "realistic" are the MOC-MOLA-NGS map, created by the Mars Global Surveyor project for National Geographic magazine, and the VIS-MDIM map, which is based on Viking orbiter imagery. Other choices include a false color topographic image and two black-and-white topographic images. You might notice that some of these maps are located in a directory called "sourcemaps" in the Mars24 distribution. If you have other full global equirectangular maps of Mars, centered on the prime meridian, you can drop them into this directory and they will become available for Mars24 to use the next time you launch the program.

(When using the NGS or the Viking map, please keep in mind that these images were acquired at particular times of the Martian year. The polar caps that they show would not match what would be seen at other times of the year.

Next, you may choose the location on which the map projection should be centered. The controls allow you to select from a variety of landmarks, including a number of lander and geographic sites, or to specify a particular longitude and latitude. Alternatively, you can shift-click on the map itself, and the map will re-center at location where you clicked. (Note: Only the orthographic projection can be centered at a latitude off the equator.)

You can also specify "how dark" you would like the nightside of Mars shaded, with 100% meaning completely black and 0% no shading at all. A value of about 70% works well, but depending on your computer monitor you might find it helps to raise or lower this value a bit.

The next three lines of controls affect whether and how a longitude-latitude grid and the datum line should be drawn on the sunclock map. Although it looks a bit like a coastline, the datum line is really just the line of average altitude and has nothing to do with seas or oceans that might have existed on Mars in the past.

The final set of options in the sunclock settings is a table of checkboxes indicating which, if any, of a set of locations should be marked on the map. The first two checkboxes are to mark the "Subsolar point" and the "Sub-Earth point", by a yellow circle and blue circle, respectively. The subsolar point is the location on Mars for which the Sun is directly overhead. Likewise, the sub-Earth point the location at which Earth is directly overhead, or for an observer on Earth looking at Mars, it is the spot directly in the middle of the hemisphere in view.

The next dozen points of interest in the table are lander sites (see endnote 2), first all the planned or successful missions followed by those which did not work out. Following the landers in the table is a selection of notable surface features. The coordinates of all the fixed locations are taken from the "marslandmarks.xml" file which is included in the Mars24 distribution and which Mars24 reads in when it first starts. You can change the color with which any of these sites and landmarks is marked on the sunclock by either right-clinging (Windows, Linux) or control-clicking (OS X) on the location in the table, and then selecting a color from the pop-up menu that will appear.

Orbital Positions Display

The second graphic display option is a plot of the orbital positions of the four inner planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Depending on how you have sized the plot window, part of Jupiter's orbit might also be visible. This plot has no special options that can be set using the controls in the prefs panel.

Mars's orbit is shown as a red ellipse and the planet's position is marked by a ♂ symbol, Earth is in light blue and marked by a ⊕ symbol, Venus is in yellow and marked by a ♀, Mercury is in white and marked by a ☿, and Jupiter, if visible, is in orange and marked by a ♃. The orbits of the other planets beyond Mars are not shown because they are much too big to fit into the display.

The other small markings on the orbital ellipses indicate the locations of perihelion, marked with a small p, and the northern hemisphere vernal (spring) equinox, marked ve. Perihelion is a planet's closest approach to the Sun; its aphelion, or farthest distance from the Sun, is indicated by an unlabeled tick mark on the far side of the orbital ellipse from perihihelion. Similarly, the start of the other seasons are indicated by unlabeled tick marks at 90° intervals from the vernal equinox tick.

You might find it interesting to use the Earth time settings to specify an Earth time and date in the morning of Aug. 27, 2003, and then examine the orbital positions plot. You'll see that Earth and Mars lie almost on the same line from the Sun, with Mars at its perihelion and Earth about 45° from its aphelion. This was the Great Mars Opposition of 2003, when Earth and Mars were the closest they had been in about 59,000 years. The light time between the two planets on that date was just 3 minutes and 6 seconds.

Local Panorama Display

The panorama display shows the locations of the Sun and Earth in the sky, as seen from a location on Mars as specified in the panorama plot controls. The Sun is marked by a yellow circle and Earth by smaller blue circle. A grid is marked on the plot indicating the four cardinal directions.

Below the panorama is a table of numerical readouts that lists the times during the day of certain events related to the positions of the Sun and Earth. These include the time of its zenith or highest ascent in the sky (for the Sun, that is the same as true solar noon), and also its nadir or lowest descent (for the Sun, true solar midnight), plus the times of crossing the horizon (sunrise, sunset, Earthrise and Earthset).

If you specify that the location of the panorama is either the MER-A Spirit, MER-B Opportunity or Mars Phoenix landing site, the plot will use a panorama photo taken by the appropriate lander as a backdrop. Otherwise it will use a solid reddish color to represent the Martian ground.

The next setting in the panorama controls allow you to choose what time format (LMST, LTST, or LMZT) should be shown for the Mars times in the panorama table.

After that is a control that can be used to alter whether the panorama graphic or the readout table is omitted from the display. This is useful if you want to draw the plot bigger or if you want to be able to see the entire readout table without scrolling.

The other settings for the panorama display allow you to specify whether the Sun and Earth should be shown on the panorama plot as plain dots (yellow for the Sun, blue for Earth) or with their paths marked. The paths can be rendered as simple curves or as curves with tick marks. The ticks indicate where the Sun or Earth will be at intervals of one Mars-hour.

The determination of sunrise and sunset accounts for the fact that the Sun is not a pinpoint light source but has, on average, an apparent radius of about 0.175° as seen from Mars. (It ranges from 0.193° at perihelion to 0.160° at aphelion.) Denoting sunrise as the time when the limb of the Sun reaches the horizon, then on average sunrise begins when the center of the Sun is 0.175° below the horizon.

Please note that the determination of times of sunrise, sunset, Earthrise, and Earthset does not adjust for any refraction of sunlight by Mars's atmosphere, nor is there any accounting for local topography at the location selected. Also note that the accuracy of the calculations of these event times will be improved if you specify correct planetographic latitude and longitude when you select the location for which you wish to see the panorama.

Analemma Display

This diagram plots the Equation of Time (the difference between difference between the True Solar Time (TST) and the Mean Solar Time (MST)) and the solar declination as functions of the areocentric longitude, Ls. Or in other words, for a given position in Mars orbit, what are 1) the discrepancy between true solar noon and mean solar noon, and 2) the Sun's angle relative to the equatorial plane. The first of these is measured along the plot's x-axis and the second along the y-axis. The units of the x-axis are Mars minutes.

For example, on the first sol of Mars' northern hemisphere spring (Ls=0), you'll see that the solar declination is zero (exactly as it should be for an equinox) and that the discrepancy between true and mean solar time is a bit more than 41 minutes.

Saving Settings

When you quit Mars24, it saves the settings of the various controls to a preferences file. The next time you use the program, it will open that file and initialize the controls using the saved prefs.


1. You can look up the coordinates of various surface features on Mars using the US Geological Survey's Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature's Mars page.

2. Following is a roster of lander missions and a few notes about each:

Active Landers (as of December 29, 2015):

MERB = Mars Exploration Rover B, Opportunity: NASA rover that landed Jan. 25, 2004 at Challenger Memorial Station, in Meridiani Planum, 354.47°E -1.95°N (image 1, image 2). Nominal mission duration was 90 sols (i.e., to Apr. 25, 2004), but the rover was still active on Sol 4241 of its mission (Dec. 29, 2015).

MSL = Mars Science Laboratory, Curiosity:
The NASA rover mission that landed in Gale Crater on Aug. 6, 2012 (late Aug. 5, Pacific time). A day after landing, it was determined that MSL had touched down at 137.44164°E 4.58947°N. The rover remains active as of Sol 1208 of its mission (Dec. 29, 2015).

MER-B landing site coordinates were provided by R. Roncoli, and MSL coordinates by A. Vasavada, B. Semenov and J. Crisp.

Planned Landers (as of December 29, 2015):

MIS = Mars InSight: NASA probe that was intended to land in September 2016 in Elysium Planitia, in the vicinity of 138°E 4°N. However, on Dec. 22, 2015, the mission launch was suspended due to problems with one of the science packages. Announcement of whether this mission will launch during the 2018 opportunity window will follow at some later date.

EDM = ExoMars Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module, Schiaparelli: ESA probe planned to land on Oct. 19, 2016 in Meridiani Planum, in the vicinity of 6.1°W 1.7°S and near NASA's MER-B Opportunity rover.

E18 = ExoMars 2018: Combined ESA rover and Roscosmos stationary platform planned to land in January 2019, with a recommended (as of Oct. 2015) landing site in Oxia Planum, in the vicinity of 24.5°W 18.25°N. Note that due to budget and time constraints, this project may be delayed and landing might then occur in mid 2021.

Past Successful Landers:

VL1 = Viking 1 Lander: NASA probe that landed July 20, 1976, at Thomas Mutch Memorial Station, in Chryse Planitia, approx. 47.95°W 22.70°N (MGS/MOC, MRO/HiRISE). The Viking 1 lander was active until Nov. 13, 1982.

VL2 = Viking 2 Lander: NASA probe that landed Sep. 3, 1976, at Gerald Soffen Memorial Station, in Utopia Planitia, approx. 225.72°W 48.27°N (image 1). The Viking 2 lander was active until Apr. 11, 1980.

MPF = Mars Pathfinder: NASA probe that landed July 4, 1997, at Carl Sagan Memorial Station, in Ares Vallis, approx. 33.25°W 19.47°N (image 1, image 2). The last transmission received from Mars Pathfinder lander occurred Oct. 7, 1997.

MERA = Mars Exploration Rover A, Spirit: NASA rover that landed Jan. 4, 2004, (UTC; late Jan. 3 in US time) at Columbia Memorial Station, in Gusev Crater, 175.48°E -14.75°N (image 1, image 2). Nominal mission duration was 90 sols (i.e., to Apr. 4, 2004), but the rover continued to operate for years. In May 2009 the rover became stuck in soft soil, which prevented it from best orienting its solar panels during the upcoming winter. The last communication from Spirit was received on Sol 2210 (Mar. 22, 2010), and NASA officially ended the mission in May 2011.

PHX = Mars Phoenix: NASA Mars Scout probe that landed on Mars late afternoon (U.S. time) of May 25, 2008. The landing site was at 234.24845°E 68.21878°N in the Vastitas Borealis (image 1, image 2). Nominal mission period was to extend into late October 2008, after which it was expected that the change of seasons at this latitude would result in the lander no longer receiving enough sunlight for its solar panels to provide sufficient power. The last communication from the lander was received on Nov. 2, 2008, i.e., on Sol 156 of the mission. Attempt to communicate with the lander the following spring were futile, and subsequent orbiter imagery suggested that the weight of ice accumulated during winter had broken off the lander's solar panels.

VL1, VL2 and MPF landing site coordinates are taken from Kuchynka et al. (2014). MER-A landing site coordinates were provided by R. Roncoli, and PHX coordinates by D. Bass.

Unsuccessful Landers:

M2 = Mars 2 Lander: Soviet Union probe that crashed Nov. 27, 1971 in Hellas Planitia, 302°W -45°N. It was probably damaged by descent during a global dust storm. Its companion orbiter worked for several months.

M3 = Mars 3 Lander: Soviet Union probe that landed Dec. 2, 1971 in Terra Sirenum, 158°W -45°N. It began transmitting a test image on landing, but fell silent about 20 sec. later. It may have been damaged by descent during a global dust storm, or the dust storm may have caused a corona discharge. Its companion orbiter worked for several months.

M6 = Mars 6: Soviet Union probe that crashed Mar. 12, 1974 near Samara Valles, 19.42°W -23.90°N. A few minutes of descent data (unreadable due to a computer chip flaw) were transmitted, but transmissions ceased in "direct proximity to the surface".

MPL = Mars Polar Lander: NASA probe that crashed Dec. 3, 1999, in the Planum Australae, at approx. 195.3°W -76.1°N. Failure is believed due to premature descent engine shutdown. MPL also carried two small Deep Space 2 microprobes to be dropped during descent and which presumably impacted about 60 km away at approx. 196.5°W -75.0°N.

BEA = Beagle 2: ESA/British Mars Express probe deployed by the Mars Express orbiter on Dec. 25, 2003 and to land in Isidis Planitia (approx. 269.5°W 11.6°N). Communication with Beagle 2 was never re-established after it separated from the orbiter. It was announced in January 2015

that the probe had been found about five km from its target landing site, apparently intact. The impact of landing had apparently prevented Beagle 2 from fully deploying.

+ Return to Mars24 Help Index +

+ Go to Mars24 Homepage +