## Electromagnetic Scattering by Particles and Surfaces

### Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications

*Edited by*

**Michael I. Mishchenko**

NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York

**Joop W. Hovenier**

Free University and University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam

**Larry D. Travis**

NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York

Academic Press, San Diego, 2000

Case Bound, xxxv + 690 pp.

137 Figures and 9 Color Plates

ISBN 0-12-498660-9

A great variety of science and engineering disciplines have significant interest in scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation by small particles. For example, this subject is important to climatology because the earth radiation budget is strongly affected by scattering of solar radiation by cloud and aerosol particles. Another example is remote sensing of the earth and planetary atmospheres, which relies largely on analyzing the parameters of radiation scattered by aerosols, clouds, and precipitation. The scattering of light by homogeneous and layered spherical particles composed of isotropic materials can be computed readily using the conventional Lorenz-Mie theory or its modifications. However, many natural and artificial small particles have nonspherical overall shapes or lack a spherically symmetric internal structure. Examples of such nonspherical particles are mineral and soot aerosols, cirrus cloud and contrail particles, liquid cloud particles with asymmetrically located inclusions, hydrometeors, snow and frost crystals, particles composed of anisotropic materials, ocean hydrosols, interplanetary and cometary dust grains, planetary ring particles, particles forming planetary and asteroid surfaces, and biological microorganisms. It is now well recognized that scattering properties of nonspherical particles can differ dramatically from those of "equivalent" Mie spheres. Therefore, the ability to accurately compute or measure light scattering by nonspherical particles in order to clearly understand the effects of particle nonsphericity on scattering patterns is very important.

Electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles was considered in some detail in the classical monographs by van de Hulst (1957), Kerker (1969), and Bohren and Huffman (1983), as well as in a collection of papers edited by Schuerman (1980). However, the rapid advancement in computers and experimental techniques as well as the development of improved analytical and numerical methods over the last two decades have resulted in a much better understanding and knowledge of scattering by nonspherical particles that has not been systematically summarized. Furthermore, papers on different aspects of this subject are scattered over dozens of various scientific and engineering journals, which often leads to an inefficient use of the accumulated knowledge and unnecessary redundancy in research activities. Therefore, the primary aim of this collective treatise written by leading experts in respective areas is to provide the first systematic and unified summary of the state-of-the-art of the field, including analytical and numerical methods for computing electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles, measurement approaches, knowledge of typical features in scattering patterns, retrieval and remote sensing techniques, nonspherical particle characterization, and practical applications. Considering the widespread need of this information in optics, geophysics, remote sensing, astrophysics, engineering, medicine, and biology, we hope that the book will be useful to many graduate students, scientists, and engineers working on various aspects of electromagnetic scattering and its applications. Although the book is the product of a number of authors, a concerted effort was made to present the material with a unified notation and consistent terminology in order to create a coherent volume.

### CONTENTS

#### Preface

**Hints from History: A Foreword**- Henk C. van de Hulst

#### Part I. Introduction

**Chapter 1. Concepts, Terms, Notation**- Michael I. Mishchenko, Joop W. Hovenier, and Larry D. Travis
**Chapter 2. Overview of Scattering by Nonspherical Particles**- Michael I. Mishchenko, Warren J. Wiscombe, Joop W. Hovenier, and Larry D. Travis
**Chapter 3. Basic Relationships for Matrices Describing Scattering by Small Particles**- Joop W. Hovenier and Cornelis V. M. van der Mee

#### Part II. Theretical and numerical Techniques

**Chapter 4. Separation of Variables for Electromagnetic Scattering by Spheroidal Particles**- Ioan R. Ciric and Francis R. Cooray
**Chapter 5. The Discrete Dipole Approximation for Light Scattering by Irregular Targets**- Bruce T. Draine
**Chapter 6.***T*-Matrix Method and its Applications- Michael I. Mishchenko, Larry D. Travis, and Andreas Macke
**Chapter 7. Finite-Difference Time Domain Method for Light Scattering by Nonspherical and Inhomogeneous Particles**- Ping Yang and K. N. Liou

#### Part III. Compounded, Heterogeneous, and Irregular Particles

**Chapter 8. Electromagnetic Scattering by Compounded Spherical Particles**- Kirk A. Fuller and Daniel W. Mackowski
**Chapter 9. Effective Medium Approximations for Heterogeneous Particles**- Petr Chýlek, Gorden Videen, D. J. Wally Geldart, J. Steven Dobbie, and H. C. William Tso
**Chapter 10. Monte Carlo Calculations of Light Scattering by Large Particles with Multiple Internal Inclusions**- Andreas Macke
**Chapter 11. Light Scattering by Stochastically Shaped Particles**- Karri Muinonen

#### Part IV. Laboratory Measurements

**Chapter 12. Measuring Scattering Matrices of Small Particles at Optical Wavelengths**- Joop W. Hovenier
**Chapter 13. Microwave Analog to Light Scattering Measurements**- Bo Å. S. Gustafson

#### Part V. Applications

**Chapter 14. Lidar Backscatter Depolarization Technique for Cloud and Aerosol Research**- Kenneth Sassen
**Chapter 15. Light Scattering and Radiative Transfer in Ice Crystal Clouds: Applications to Climate Research**- K. N. Liou, Yoshihide Takano, and Ping Yang
**Chapter 16. Centimeter and Millimeter Wave Scattering From Nonspherical Hydrometeors**- Kültegin Aydin
**Chapter 17. Microwave scattering by precipitation**- Jeffrey L. Haferman
**Chapter 18. Polarized Light Scattering in the Marine Environment**- Mary S. Quinby-Hunt, Patricia G. Hull, and Arlon J. Hunt
**Chapter 19. Scattering Properties of Interplanetary Dust Particles**- Kari Lumme
**Chapter 20. Biomedical and Biophysical Applications of Non-Spherical Scattering**- Alfons G. Hoekstra and Peter M. A. Sloot

#### CONTACT

For more information, contact:

Michael Mishchenko

NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies

2880 Broadway

New York, NY 10025

**Phone**: (212) 678-5590

**Fax**: (212) 678-5552

**E-mail**:
crmim@giss.nasa.gov

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