Air Pollution as a Climate Forcing: A Workshop
Day 3 Presentations
Indian Scenario on Automotive Emissions and Fuel Quality
IIP Dehradun, India
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Vehicular pollution has become a matter of great concern all over the world. In India also, it has reached alarming levels at least in the mega cities. In this presentation an attempt has been made to put forward the Indian scenario on automotive emissions and auto fuel quality. To start with, the background statistics on vehicle population growth, vehicle distribution in metropolitan cities, emissions from vehicles, status of fuel refineries, product pattern of refineries, and automotive fuel consumption trends are presented. It is seen that vehicle population would increase by about 1.5 times from year 2000 to 2005. Two wheelers constitute around 78% of total vehicle population, which is different from developed countries where passenger cars constitute a major share of vehicle population. India has a unique situation in fuel consumption trend, as the national consumption of diesel is almost 7 times that of gasoline and 65% of gasoline is used by 2&3-wheelers. Presently, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and the oxides of nitrogen are the regulated emissions and efforts are also started to control greenhouse gases.
India is seventh largest consumer of petroleum products in the world having presently 18 fuel refineries in operation with total capacity of 115 MMTPA and annual demand of 100 MMTPA. The refineries are designed for maximum diesel production and the overall diesel production is 39% against gasoline production of 8%. An Indian scenario on automotive emissions has been presented covering the initiatives taken for emissions reduction, present and future emission norms and the vehicle emission inventory in 2001-02. Very stringent emission norms for 2&3-wheelers, Euro-II equivalent norms for 4-wheelers, control on more than 8 years old commercial vehicles and promotion of CNG (compressed natural gas) vehicles are a few important steps taken for emission reduction. It is found that gasoline vehicles especially the 2&3-wheelers are the main contributors to HC and CO whereas NOx is mainly contributed by the diesel vehicles.
The scenario on fuel quality has been presented covering initiatives taken for fuel quality improvement, fuel quality concerns, present fuel quality status in India and comparison of Indian and European fuel quality specifications. Total lead phase-out and major reduction in benzene content in gasoline and reduction in sulphur content of gasoline and diesel are the main achievements. Seven mega cities would be having Euro-III equivalent fuel quality by 2005 and this would be extended to the entire nation by 2010 along with introduction of Euro-IV equivalent fuel quality in mega cities.
The government of India has set-up an Expert Committee to thoroughly deliberate and recommend the "Auto Fuel Policy" for the country. The committee has been entrusted with the job of recommending the future road map for fuel quality and emission norms apart from suggesting the emission reduction measures and institutional means for effective implementation and surveillance. The committee has already submitted its interim report and the final report is to be submitted by the end of May 2002. The government has accepted the measures suggested in the interim report and actions have already been started. The highlights of the interim-report have been presented which calls for a dynamic auto fuel policy, appropriate institutional mechanisms, multi-fuel and multi-technology options, inspection and certification program and encouragement of alternative fuels.
Efforts to control particulate matter and scenario on use of alternative fuels are also briefly presented. The recent emphasis has been on use of gaseous fuels i.e. CNG and LPG in the worst affected metropolitan cities. In Delhi, all city buses are being converted to run on CNG. Blending of gasoline with 5% ethanol is also being tested. A comparison of emissions from vehicles running on various alternative fuels is presented. The scope of reduction of emissions from 2-wheelers by moving from 2-stroke to 4-stroke engine is also presented. Various steps taken to check fuel adulteration have been briefly presented. The present scenario in 7 mega cities has also been discussed. Finally, what more is required to be done has been put forward.