Air Pollution as a Climate Forcing: A Workshop
Day 2 Presentations
Black Carbon and Organic Carbon Emissions, Climatologies and Trends
and Isabelle Chiappello±
* Laboratoire d'Aérologie, CNRS-UPS, Toulouse, France.
+ Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CNRS-CEA, Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France.
° Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra, Italy
± Laboratoire d'Optique Atmospherique, UMR-CNRS, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq cedex, France
You may download a MS PowerPoint version (1.6 MB) of this presentation.
Control of Black Carbon (BC) emissions emerges as a plausible tool for policy makers as part of a strategy to control global warming in the next 50 years.
BC atmospheric amount and distribution are stringly linked to human activities. In this work, changes of fossil fuel BC emissions have been studied for the period 1950-2100. The BC inventory from 1950 to the present has been created following Cooke et al. (1999). Projections for 2020 and 2100 have been obtained by using fuel consumption data and population change proposed by the IPCC for two extreme scenarios. For any situation from the past to future, emission factors for carbonaceous aerosols were carefully adapted with attention to the nature of fuel, fuel usage and partition between transport, industrial and domestic sectors. The state of development of each country was also taken into account.
These source inventories were then introduced in the European TM3 model, a 3D global off-line transport model. Global trends for modeled BC concentrations have been studied with focus on some relevant sites located in China, India and Europe. An inventory of organic particles has been also tentatively introduced for the same period and the effect of these aerosols studied. Finally, radiative forcing calculation has been performed for modeled fossil fuel carbonaceous aerosols for different years (1970, 1980, 1990, 2020 and 2100).
In conclusion, it is important to mention that scenarios based on IPCC tools could not be adapted to biomass burning emissions. Indeed, we have scrutinized annual trends of carbonaceous aerosol emissions from african biomass burning and their subsequent modeled impact with comparisons with TOMS data. For the 1980 decade and the 2000 year, several inventories were derived from satellite data. Strong interannual variability reveals complex relationships with human activities and climate, giving some clue for past and future source inventory exercises.
- Cooke W.F., Liousse C., Cachier H. and Feichter H., Construction of a 1°x1° fossil fuel emission dataset for carbonaceous aerosol and implementation in the ECHAM-4 model, J. Geophys. Res., 104, (1999), 22137-22162.